What Is Polkadot (DOT)? How Does It Work? A Comprehensive Overview

What Is Polkadot (DOT)?

Polkadot (DOT) is a ‘Layer 0’ blockchain project that centers interoperability. A ‘network of networks’, it seeks to break down the barriers between various blockchain ecosystems. In this way, it enables intermediary-free communication between separate blockchain ecosystems. 

Making this intermediary-free communication possible are parachains, specialized blockchains that each have their own unique functionality and tokens.

Key Takeaways

  • Polkadot (DOT) uses the nominated proof-of-stake (NPoS) consensus algorithm, which allows for more efficient energy usage compared to proof-of-work (PoW) algorithms.
  • Polkadot uses parachains and a relay chain to facilitate a more scalable blockchain ecosystem.
  • The bridges on the protocol allow different blockchain networks to interact with each other, enabling cross-chain communication.
  • The protocol’s native token is DOT. Holders of DOT can participate in governance processes and earn rewards for staking their tokens on the network.

Polkadot’s innovative approach to interoperability and scalability has garnered attention from the blockchain and cryptocurrency community. Its ability to connect different blockchain networks and facilitate cross-chain communication has the potential to unlock new use cases and applications for decentralized technology.

How Does Polkadot Work?

Polkadot is a blockchain platform that addresses obstacles hindering the growth of blockchain technology, including speed, scalability, and security. Polkadot founders, Robert Habermeier, Peter Czaban and Ethereum co-founder Gavin Wood1, officially launched the network in 2020. 

Before going live, the Web3 Foundation raised $145 million in 2017 to develop the protocol by selling DOT tokens. An additional private sale in 2020 raised $43 million2.

Issues Addressed by Polkadot

Polkadot addresses speed, scalability, and security issues in blockchain technology. Most first-generation blockchains are limited by technical limitations such as scalability. Polkadot aims to solve these issues.

Parachains and the Relay Chain

Polkadot’s architecture consists of two main components: parachains and the relay chain. Parachains are independent, customizable Layer-1 blockchains that connect back to the main relay chain. They serve as the governance layer of the network and are a management mechanism. The underlying Layer-0 relay chain is responsible for shared network security, consensus, and interoperability. It validates data and ensures that transactions are executed.

Bridges and Parathreads

Polkadot also features bridges, which connect blockchains and allow data to be transferred among them. Bridges establish interoperability and can be used to connect to external networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Parathreads are a smaller-scale, temporary alternative to parachains that work on a pay-as-you-go (block by block) model. They are useful for blockchains that don’t require continuous connectivity to the Polkadot network.


Polkadot’s Substrate describes itself as “the Blockchain Framework for a Multichain Future”. The framework abstracts away much of the blockchain designing process, allowing teams, companies, and individuals to focus on building their products. Substrate offers an important contribution to how development may evolve in the industry.


Polkadot uses an NPoS consensus model with three main stakeholders: nominators, validators, and collators3. Nominators secure the relay chain and select trustworthy validators. Validators stake DOT, validate proofs from collators and participate in consensus. Collators are responsible for keeping a record of valid parachain transactions and sending them to validators on the relay chain.

The DOT Token

The DOT token has two main uses: staking on the network to bolster network security and governance. Staking incentivizes network participants to act honestly by holding DOT as collateral for good behavior. Rewards are issued to those who stake their DOT. DOT holders are given rights and abilities to participate in voting through ‘OpenGov’ referenda, a voting scheme weighted by stake4.

What is Polkadot’s Future?

Polkadot is poised to become one of the most promising networks of the future. While the project is still in its early years, many developments indicate that the path it has laid out could be the standard for value exchange.

Polkadot’s Substrate development tool lowers the barriers to entry, which could potentially attract a lot of development. 

There are currently 100 parachains supported on Polkadot, although the team is looking to increase this limit to 1,0005. As it stands, developers building on parachains have a lot of flexibility regarding state changes and the creation of general rules.

The Polkadot substrate can process over 1,000 transactions per second (100,000 assuming all 100 parachains are active)6. The upper limit for Polkadot’s transaction throughput is expected to hit 1 million transactions per second following its anticipated asynchronous backing upgrade. This high level of transaction processing speed and scalability is another feature that makes Polkadot an attractive platform for developers.

Polkadot’s parachain model is more decentralized and trustless than layer-2 scaling architecture alone. Many teams have already built parachains, and as of Q2 2022, millions of transactions have been processed on them7. The future bodes well for this budding ecosystem, which could potentially become the go-to platform for developing blockchain-based applications.

Polkadot vs Polygon

AspectPolkadotPolygon (MATIC)
TeamWeb3 Foundation and Parity TechnologiesPolygon (previously Matic) Foundation
Year Launched20202017 (as Matic), rebranded to Polygon in 2021
Consensus MechanismNominated Proof-of-Stake (NPoS)Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
ScalabilityDesigned for interoperability and scalability through parachainsHigh throughput and fast confirmation times with multiple sidechains and zkEVM Layer-2.
Smart Contract SupportThrough parachains like Moonbeam, Polkadot enables smart contractsSupports Ethereum-compatible smart contracts.
Sources: Polkadot

Frequently Asked Questions

Where Is Polkadot Available?

DOT can be purchased on exchanges such as Binance, Coinbase, Kraken, and Gemini.

Several wallets are available for storing DOT, including Ledger, Fearless, Polkawallet, and Polkadot-JS Plus. These wallets offer a secure way to store and manage your DOT tokens.

Is Polkadot Crypto a Good Investment?

Polkadot (DOT) is a high-risk investment due to its volatile nature. Before investing, it’s best to consult a financial advisor familiar with cryptocurrency to determine if DOT aligns with your investment goals and strategy.

What Is Polkadot Crypto Worth?

Polkadot (DOT) is a cryptocurrency that is designed to provide a foundation for a decentralized internet of blockchains, also known as Web3. The actual DOT is not found on exchanges, but rather a pegged version created on another blockchain, which fluctuates in value. As of December 8, 2023, DOT is worth $6.718. However, investing in cryptocurrencies and initial coin offerings (ICOs) is highly risky and speculative. 

How does Polkadot aim to enhance blockchain interoperability?

Polkadot aims to enhance blockchain interoperability by allowing different blockchain networks to communicate and interact with each other. It does this by creating a network of specialized blockchains called “parachains” that can connect to the main Polkadot chain. This architecture enables different blockchain networks to share data and assets, creating a more connected and interoperable blockchain ecosystem.

What are the potential uses for Polkadot in the blockchain ecosystem?

Polkadot has a wide range of potential uses in the blockchain ecosystem. One of the main use cases is for decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, where different blockchain networks can interact with each other to provide more comprehensive financial services. Polkadot can also be used for supply chain management, identity verification, and other applications that require secure and decentralized data sharing.

What are the unique features of Polkadot that differentiate it from other blockchain projects?

Polkadot has several unique features that differentiate it from other blockchain projects. One of the main features is its ability to connect different blockchain networks and enable them to communicate with each other. It also uses a unique consensus mechanism called “Nominated Proof of Stake” (NPoS), which allows token holders to nominate validators and participate in the consensus process. Additionally, Polkadot has a governance system that allows token holders to vote on proposals and changes to the network.

How does staking work within the Polkadot network?

Staking is an important part of the Polkadot network. Token holders can stake their tokens to participate in the consensus process and earn rewards in return. Staking also allows token holders to nominate validators and help secure the network. The more tokens a user stakes, the more influence they have in the network and the more rewards they can earn.

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